L07a光与真空中光速light and light vel
Abstract this essay through analysis to raise the improving view to “the light velocity to be conservation in the vacuum”
关键词 光速 相对论 波动论 微粒说
keywordsvilocity of light relativity wave theory corpuscular theory
( English text see rear)
究竟怎样对“光速”的守恒与否进行结论呢？如上所述，需要的不是简单的肯定与否定而是对机理的明晰，因为，物理上不少理论上的守恒都不是严格的从机制上的守恒，例如虎克定律规定应力同应变之比守恒，实际上，即使经过严格工艺制造出的材料，“不守恒”的程度也达到10-3。为什么材料不能严格的“遵守” 虎克定律呢？回答是，是虎克定律假定了材料的性能为线性关系，实际上任何材料都不能完全达到“要求”。可以说，是理论存在偏高估计。因为，任何金属材料同理想的弹性体有一定差异，由原子之间所传递的应力决不能如设想的那样保持 应力/应变＝常数，充其量只在某一小段范围内近似常数而已。这一小段名为“在弹性限度内”。光在电场中传播具有某种程度的类似，所谓“光速守恒”分为三种情况，一是对于各种频率光――多色光――均表现守恒；二是对不同强度——亮度——的光波其波速守恒；三是在相对运动中光速的守恒。现分别讨论如下：
Light and light velocity in the vacuum
S. G. Chinese
Abstract through analysis to raise the improving view to “the light velocity to be conservation in the vacuum”
Key words light velocity relativity wave theory corpuscular theory
The famous test by Michelson in 1881 it plan to prove the Ether’s migration relative to the earth, when after to exchange the position of light path of the instrument but find the interference fringe have no change, this result is unexpected. It seems to show the Ether was no migration relative to the earth. If the Ether was move follow the earth? Finally how did travel of the light in the space? These all become the problems, certainly, the problem large than this was although people suppose “the light is spread by Ether”, but can’t affirm Ether is exist, can’t to think what is the Ether actually? To aim at this test Lorentz to raise the “Lorentz changing” ： “the matter’s length get curtailing at movement direction”, use as the explaining.
After Lorentz changing and Maxwell equation, 《Relativity》put up with “the light velocity is conservation in the vacuum”, because of this explanation have further supplementary by physical and mathematic so get go up become “principle”.
《Relativity》 from the angle of physical and put the light velocity link with the coordinate value, to analyze the rule of light velocity between the different reference systems. The time be treat as one element, it make up the space of four-element function with three coordinate axes, and derive the mathematic rule for linear transform of four-element space. Use “the light velocity is conservation in the vacuum” to explain Michelson test and to make the contemporary people in admiration. Classics physics does not be aware of the “light” possess velocity, to place the velocity of light was infinity unconsciously, until next century begin, the value of light velocity does measured more and more precise. The importance of to admit the influence of light velocity is clearly, in the high velocity flying, if without regard to this influence, how to proper judge the position of object and lest should collide? how to proper judge the time process of two system when in high-velocity related movement?
Therefore, the feat of 《Relativity》 was gigantic, but , the knowledge accumulate to go through 100 years, today it’s physical circles possible to do more right analysis, to make further perfect for ancestors recognizing.
If the principle of “the light velocity is conservation in the vacuum” was correct? To have or haven’t more logical explanation for Michelson test? It is clearly, three-dimensional space and the mathematic rule of more dimensional function-space are not direct involve if the light velocity is conservation, here major face the mechanism analysis．
From physical angle to see, in theory, the vacuum should be truly “empty”, do not exist any thing just the vacuum. But this vacuum cannot to spread light, cannot to send out light, therefore, the vacuum is synonymy with dark, none light in the vacuum, where come from the light-velocity? What way to exist the “light velocity is conservation”? From this can be seen, that is useful for use new viewpoint to re-analysis, only through over and over call into question, the theory’s correctness just credibility, the imperfectness theory able to go correct.
After all, what is light? What kind of medium does spread light? It to cause the associate to the reality of two theory of “wave and particle”, this two theory has been meet as equals and each going his own way over 300 years．
The difference of this two physical model was clear, but they have two joint traits, namely：“part in the right”and “exceeding to open up”their cover range.
The light before 300 years is point the visible light. Today, it has been prepared a series of both has nature different and quantity different physical things all bring into a same “light”. One side of wave theory use the model of electric wave to cover “whole”, other side of particle formalism and so use quantum model to cover “whole”, they are all contain “boundary expansion”. So that the problem not in the model but in not correctly definite the using field of model and wish it “general application”
From ultra-low frequency electric wave to the ultraviolet wave which refract out from triple prism possess the nature of wave motion、refraction、interfere etc. It is the suitable object of quote wave model, as for the wave model, the application should stop on the ultraviolet wave；
prepared which possess ray nature things of ultraviolet ray 、X-ray etc transfer to the quantum model to treat. Both sides each to guard border and not narrowly to get other side into it own side, this the basic arrangement for clear up the debate of “wave 、particle”．
That is way, concurrence “wave” and “particle” two models, visible light belong to a side of “wave”, it possess the wave’s nature. The light of narrow sense just the visible light；the generalized light contain two section of infrared、ultraviolet which refract from triple prism and visible light. Not be under the term of “light” contain ray and not be under the noun of “ray” contain light is to respect the objective reality, so and so only, the analysis to the “light velocity” and “conservation” just rather suitable.
To regard the light as the wave in the electric field, the wave theory has been complete to describe its property, the describing to the electromagnet wave by Maxwell’s equation contain veracious physical mechanism, but also take notice for “magnet wave”, it only to reflect the inner physical process of the waveguide, does not exist “magnetic” phenomenon in the space and the particle of sub-atom, but exist force-line there. Certainly, it has not contradiction with equation, only need to give relevant value of coefficient of magnetic conductance. Above can saw, the difference of recognizing of this text is, has discover the substance of different of “wave、particle”. in the “whole” physical thing of go by name of “light”, the common point is the “performer” only one：electron； the distinct point is to act as “medium” or “carrier”. As to the frequency, all belong to the quantity-classify for both sides.
Really isn’t due to it can’t find uniting just to take the way of “one divide into two”, but respect to the practice, need to admit the difference, therefore to use unlike physical model, only divide the work and to cooperate , thus just can to let “whole” thing of belong to the “light” get concordant describing.
That is to say, now what is said “light”, in fact contained tow kind of different physical things of “wave、particle”, both side only can explain a part of phenomenon, no one possess the ability of “total cover”,
The problem of the theory of “dual property” rest with avoid mechanism but prepared “wave、particle” are the different apparent of the same thing, it is hard to clear when meet the event of as light refraction、nuclear fission etc, there exist only “one property”.
Excessive open up to cause the “partly miss” and to bring about controversy of “wave、particle”, but, due to the both sides are all “share in the right”, one side cannot overpower or to replace other side. As a result, if does not distinguish both sides of “wave、particle”, the controversy will always not stop. The “dual property” theory hard to defend itself but also sink into excessive open up, look forward to mark more widespread to “have general meaning” for the “dual property”.
3 light velocity
If the light velocity does “constant in the vacuum” is the important problem of theory clearly, it does not simple “yes” or “no” need to explain, but wherein the reason, to this end, should find the physical substance of light velocity.
The light velocity is belongs to the wave velocity. The wave velocity would to bear the influence of the kind of medium and the uniformity of medium, cosmic space、atmosphere、transparent solid、transparent liquid are all the “medium”, in these mediums, the living thing is “electron matrix” namely the electric field in the medium. It has been regarded the “vacuum” is light medium, in fact, that is miss think to the space ,which full of electric matrix ——space electric-field——but take it for vacuum, in theory, space not exist the macroscopic vacuum, it should no be set up the relation between light velocity and vacuum. The proposition of “light speed in the vacuum” is unable to establish．
To relate to the “light speed” is medium, the electric-field of medium to be the electron matrix, the factor which affect light wave spreading are the density of electron and freedom level of field electrons, this two factors are all to happen influence to the light-speed. The electron of cosmic space possess maximal freedom level, the electron of air、transparent body was nearer from atomic nucleus, their freedom level is lower relatively, this is the reason of the light possess different speed when in the different medium. In the relative placid space, to depart the star is far enough, may be treat the space electric-field is “even”, it is not big difference on the value with “light velocity is constant”, but, to regard it as the principle, have to admit the light velocity was influenced with “density” of electric-field, hard to absolute constant.
Namely, “on the theory, the light velocity should not conservation”. If have the fact act as proof? The proof is the“attract-force bend” of light to pass from star nearby’, “bend” was the fact as is known to every one, “attractive” only a analysis to the reason of bend, but this analysis is incorrect clearly. Because of the attract force to be the weakest force of the “four kind of force”, it is less then electromagnetic force、weak acting force、strong acting force, until now did not find that tree kind of force have influence to the route of light wave even though they are more strong then the attract force, so the analysis of “attract-force bend” is incredible. Like that, how did the bend get to happen? Priority to think over certainly is on the factor of medium side. It is clear, the electron density of star nearby would far hyper to the space of removed star, because star is the radiation source of electrons, and the gradient was large there. When light from distant location travel close to a star, actually is into the medium of gradually “dense”, put the nearest act as the boundary, after to go over this point, into the medium of gradually change to “thin”. There out espy , the velocity of light line——actually is light wave——first was get gradually change to slower, to pass of the nearest, the velocity get gradually change to fast, to traveled out a curved shape convex to star, it seem suffer “star attracting”, withal, make up the deciding of “attract-force bend” is able to understanding, but the physical mechanism just “the density change of space medium”, or, that is the change of refraction rate to lead to the changing of light velocity. Conversely, if “light velocity does constant”, the “bend” be unable to happen. The changing of medium density cause the changing of light velocity is the core of “refractive law”, therefore, in the medium, it is not worth to be queer of the light velocity does variable.
“the light velocity in the vacuum” just like “the light velocity in the space”, it is the velocity of electric wave which to spread in the space electric-field, In theory although electrical field strength roughly “stable” in the region of removed from star, but this “stable” would to lack compare artificial surroundings on the earth, clearly this just the physical background of which the precision of space-ranging would low-lying than in earth’s surface, it is clear, space light-velocity roughly may be “relatively stable”, but, if to use this actually “relatively stable” change to “stable on theory” or on the principle, then violate of logic and is don’t right.
4 discuss to light velocity is conservation
After all how to do the conclusion for conservation or not of “light velocity”? As stated above, it is not need to simply sure or negate but to clear the mechanism, because of not a few physical conservation are all not strict conservation on the basic mechanism, such as Hooke’s law to set the stress divide strain is conservation, in fact, the material even if made up though strict technique, the level of no-conservation also to reach 10-3. why the material can not be strictly “comply with” Hooke’s law? The reply is, to be the Hooke’s law to assume linear relationship of the material, in fact any material cannot be complete to reach this “require”. As it were, just theory exist overrate.
Owing to any metallic material have a certain difference with perfect elastomer, “the ratio of stress and strain is equal to the constant” is cannot to keep as imagine．At most only similar to the constant at a small range． This small range named “at inner of elastic limit”. It have partly similar with the spreading of light in the electric field, so called “light velocity is conservation” is divided to three situations, the first is, for every frequency of light——multi-color light——are all to show conservation, the second is, for different strength——illumination——of light, the wave velocity is conservation, third is, light velocity is conservation in the relative movement. Now with separate discuss as follows：
1、it has carried, to link with light is every kind of medium, the same side of the different light-medium is all exist a electric field in which the light wave may be spread, also to called as “electron matrix”, the different side is the electron density and their freedom level.
In the vast cosmos space except for “electron matrix” still exist the “particle” in the process of polymerization, some of them already form the atom or matter, but the density is low, most of electron relatively are most “freedom”, for this reason, space electric-field toward light wave, it’s characteristic near ideal, every kind of light wave all possess same velocity. Even spread through long distance of a certain number of hundred million years, just now happen fixed “red shift”. But the general “transparent body” then can’t be done, its member of “electron matrix” not so free relatively, they suffer influence from nucleus, This influence was difference in different frequency, therefore, when light to enter these medium, not only the velocity get to drop, but also the drop was not equal. To cause the “chromatic dispersion”, to make optics expertise give a lot of care fore this and to eliminate the influence of chromatic dispersion in lens design. So on the theory the cosmic-space has not “chromatic dispersion” and the transparent body must be exists of chromatic dispersion. The every kind of light wave of different frequency would possess equal velocity in the cosmic space, and the transparent body does contrarily.
2、 According to the wave theory, the wave velocity was unrelated to the amplitude, serve as theory, it is correct。 Why the wave velocity does unrelated with the amplitude? Because of according to the wave theory, the vibration period is unrelated with the amplitude, why? When the vibration matter more depart of balance position , its potential energy get more high, this linearity relation require to supply by actual existent space electric-field, but when touch upon reality, the influence factor is much, absolute in keeping with theory require is hardly arrived. Above has mentioned, the elasticity of metallic material was fall short of theory about 0.1%, it is not practical of space electric-field is absolute in keeping with theory require, try to take care of a remote star, its light compared with sun, the illumination was differ at 1012（10 to the power of -12）, under so large weaken, its wave velocity to reduce about 46 % is not at all surprising. Nowadays, for this “reduce”, some one to think of the cosmos in “expanding” now, and then to think of the space exist large quantity of dark matter、dark energy and more than enough to the visible matter.
But, who is able adduce even if one physic thing of absolute unchanging? Why only the light velocity can doing to this?
3、have the influence to the light velocity by relative movement? Wave theory to think the medium movement would influent to the wave velocity, in fact, the problem of Michelson just here, because of under the condition of laboratory, the air serve as medium was non flowing, when the instrument get turning, really is not influent to the actual optical length, the “ether” of dissociate and entrainment in the imaging but does not existing on the spot. Therefore, the changing of interference image is can’t in sight；to this, Lorentz to raise “ the length of movement body would to curtail”, Relativity to raise “light-velocity conservation”.
To look at to day, these two kinds of deciding are all belong to error judging. “the medium does not move“ is the reason of the result of that experiment, have any proof to this? Yes, the Fizeau experiment in 1886 may be the evidence proof, this experiment to arrange the water in the light road, when the water is flow, indeed see the interference fringe get change. It able to proof the medium movement was influence to light velocity.
Therefore, to use “light-velocity conservation” to explain Michelson test and to use “the length of movement body would to curtail” are all out of mechanism, is the incorrect deciding. For prudent treat to the acquire result, ought to reinstate the obtain result of the wave theory from classical physics. Only observer located in still and homogeneous medium, the wave velocity just now in unchanging, if happen movement between observer and medium, or the space medium-field exist of grads, the wave velocity then suffer influence. Here the improving to the Relativity is consistent in practical application, because of the application of light velocity to the Relativity, major to be reflected in “four dimension of time-space”, is the arrangement for treat “information distortion” when under high speed.
“light velocity is limited” already to cause the “message delay”, when observed a bright point of a star from telescope, it is the light wave by that star to send out before a certain number of hundred million years, the star surely already removed from that position and does not original shape!
The “light velocity is limited” also to make convince of it would be arise the “time distortion” between two high-speed locomotive system, when the velocity of relative motion near light-velocity, also the level of distortion more and more large.
Through linear alternate, towards the position of high-speed object may be turn to amend, to make the perceptive coordinate-figure become truth value. To make observed time course of the object become truth “time length”. In this respect, the contribution of “four-dimensional temporal and spatial” of Relativity is very huge.
Thus, according to the mechanism, towards “conservation” or not for the “light velocity” already haven more veracious recognizing, to hold light velocity as a general physical thing, don’t give it the special nature of “velocity conservation” etc.
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