谈 中微子

2019-8-8

L 61                                                                                                谈 中微子

提  要  对中微子提出新的认识

关键词  中微子,  引力子,  斥力子,  电子,  引力线,  斥力线                               

 

中微子是什么粒子?它在“粒子家族”中处于什么位置?如果不能正确回答以上问题就难以做好关于中微子的文章。就是说, 正确的基础理论,是正确认识中微子的先决条件。

陈理士物理(Chinese physics)认为,基本粒子只有引力子、斥力子两种,而现在的主流物理理论命名了那么多种“基本粒子”和更多的“粒子”,这使“粒子小家庭”,成了汪洋大海,真正基本粒子几乎被它们淹没。

其实,中微子就是引力子,两种基本粒子同力的关系是:引力子发出引力线,斥力子发出斥力线。

(1)引力线遇到引力线相互作用形成引力,记为F1

(2)斥力线遇到斥力线相互作用形成斥力,记为F2

(3)引力线遇到斥力线相互作用形成引力,记为F3,但F3 < F1

   相当于,引力子之间产生引力;斥力子 之间产生斥力。

   要说明的是,斥力子同电子本来是一码事,但是,由于对于电子质量(9×10-28克)的数据来自化学假定“氢原子外围只有一枚电子”,从物理角度看,氢原子外围必须许多电子才能形成完善封闭的空间、具有电磁中性、自由地进行布朗运动。根据宇宙射线的能量差距和假定两种基本粒子质量相近,初步估计引力子和电子的质量〈10-36克。精确数据有待以后研究确定。

   构成质子、中子的只有这两种基本粒子。

人们自然要问,那些“介子”(〉200种)宇宙射线粒子(>600种)等等“粒子”同两种基本粒子有何关系?

   《L04物质演变》一文叙述了引力子聚合有两种方式:一是在空间高速相向运动的引力子有可能形成“微涡旋星系”,二是引力子结伴同行,继续高速直线运动,即宇宙射线。

    “微涡旋星系”中引力子已转变为回旋运动,动能不再对外作用,成为“原子能”而潜藏在质子、中子内部。以后,如果发生核反应,质子、中子彻底分解,两种基本粒子又由回旋运动转变为直线运动成为宇宙射线粒子。

     通常探测到的“中微子”其实就是在空间高速运动的引力子,不过,由于: 它发出引力线, 对它不会形成斥力。因此,此“中微子”有以下特点:

(1a) 恒以高速运动,显示为宇宙射线粒子。

(2a) 由于上述(1),引力子容易“结伴”同行,迄今并没有理解这一点,误以为“中微子”有许多“种”或“有不同味道”或“有600种以上宇宙射线粒子”。

(3a) 在电场中它同电子的受力方向相反。

是否感觉到了当年安德森发现的那个同电子运动方向相反的粒子其实就是引力子?把它看成“正电子”、产生了正电子理论。但是有明显破绽:不能回答正电子同质子、中子、原子有何关系?不能回答当发光时正电子从哪里来,光暗下来正电子又往何处而去?不能

证明质量与能量可以互变(因此,说“光子没有质量”既缺少依据,又把“光子”置于“无质量”等于真空,等于虚无的位置 ,故并不真正存在“正电子”)

以下进一步讨论有关中微子的问题:

(1b) 中微子自何而来?

答:质子发生“解体”时,原来进行涡旋运动的引力子克服了引力束缚四散离去,成为直线运动的“粒子”,空间每一颗恒星、每一次“超新星爆发”、放射性物质的核幅射都会产生“中微子”,于是,这里回答本文开始的问题: 中微子是什么?它就是作为两种基本粒子之一的引力子。空间到处都可能有它的踪迹。

(2b) “中微子”往何而去?

答:“中微子”离开质子后,高速在空间飞行(速度大约在光速量级,准确值有待研究确定) 。有一个问题:它会不会离开“我们的宇宙”而消失于无际空间? 不会!理由是,它发出引力线,在宇宙中飞行时,产生的引力平衡,不影响它的运动,因此它们是“永恒量子”,速度不变,如果它离开了物质宇宙飞向没有星球的无际空间,它的引力线同物质宇宙之间生成的引力会使它降低离开速度并渐渐返回!因此,即使空间无限,它们却不会散失!

        那么,中微子——引力子——会永远如此飞行吗?不会,它们的“出路”是:经过聚合,再次参加到质子、中子里去。其机理参见陈理士网站的《L01 粒子今论》《L04 物质演变》等文。一句话,中微子(引力子)来自质子、中子、原子,去向还是质子、中子、原子。可用一句禅语:“自来处来,向去处去”。

(3b) 中微子的“中”定义恰当吗?

答:以往命名中微子是认为它是“电中性的粒子”,这一误会的产生是由于直线运动中微子速度很高在普通电磁场里显示不出轨迹偏转,于是认为是“中性”,其实,引力子发出引力线,遇到其它基本粒子发出的力线形成引力F1或F3,此力使它容易聚合。如果电磁场(引力线、斥力线分布场)够强,它也会发生明显轨迹偏转,193O年,美国物理学家安德森“发现正电子”的那个粒子迹线图上,许多宇宙射线粒子轨迹都发生了偏转,力线同力线形成力,力必定影响粒子运动轨迹。现在,还能相信“中微子”是“电中性的粒子”吗?

(4b) 中微子“对称”吗?

答:许多人相信“粒子对称”,有人不但主张“粒子对称”,还开拓到“宇宙对称”,如果“对称”是正确的,自然会得到事实的支持。

这里要说的是,宇宙间既有严格对称事物,也有不对称事物,还有大致对称事物。如:作用力同反作用力属于严格对称,其机理在于:作用力同反作用力由相等数量的力线相互作用产生,故绝对相等;又如,时间属于不对称事物,它是单方向、连续、不可逆物理事物;再如,许多动植物形体,属于大体对称事物,初略地,比较对称,精细地,不够对称。总之,事物的对称与不对称由是否存在对称机理确定,容不得预先确定,更不能仅凭想象开拓到“宇宙对称”。

作为引力子的中微子,能不能说斥力子(电子)同它对称呢?这在于能不能发现它们之间存在对称机理,因为目前并未发现,因此,不能假定“中微子对称”。

(5b) 中微子同质子有何关系?

答:《L01 粒子今论》《L04 物质演变》等文叙述了 质子乃是引力子——中微子——通过蓄能聚合形成的“微涡旋星系”,中子是引力子、斥力子通过蓄能聚合形成的“微涡旋星系”。因此,宇宙万物(包括我们的身体)都来自“中微子”和电子,可以说;“中微子远在天边、近在身上”。

(6b) 中微子同宇宙射线有何关系?

答:直线运动的中微子就是宇宙射线粒子。当然,宇宙射线中常常还掺有未裂解的质子、中子和未完全裂解的“微涡旋星系”。完全单身的中微子在宇宙射线中并不多。这是至今不能精确得知其质量的重要原因。

(7b) 中微子同力有何关系?

答:中微子——引力子——发出引力线,上面(1)(3)曾提过,可以形成引力,现在可以看出,“牛顿力”和任何引力的源头恰恰是来自引力子的引力线。

(8b) 中微子同物质有何关系?

答:中微子——引力子——的“微涡旋星系”的最大稳定规模是质子;中微子、电子——斥力子——的“微涡旋星系”的最大稳定规模是中子,因此,中微子、电子是构成原子、分子的基本粒子。它俩才是真正的基本粒子!迄今物理界命名了大量“粒子”,除电子外,其余都有改进认识的余地。

任何宏观物质由质子、中子、电子形成,没有例外,中微子同物质的关系,是不是血肉关系呢?

(9b) 如何看待目前的中微子理论?

答:目前,中微子理论百家争鸣,不能圆满,难以以理服人。但是,认为中微子速度很大是正确的,具体数值则有待今后实验确定;说中微子可以变是不正确的。需要从基本粒子只有两种——引力子、斥力子——这个出发点对待中微子理论,并且,宇宙间真实的粒子也就是这两种粒子,已经命名的千百种“粒子”大多是“复数基本粒子”而不是真正为一粒的粒子。

  还有一些则是某些理论认为存在而仔细分析并不存在的“粒子”,粒子理论需要遵守物理学的普遍规则,如:基本粒子质量、形态不能变;能量守恒且不能变质量;任何描述物理改变的方程,其等号左右的物理量纲必须相等。

否则,无机理的“理论”会通行无阻,使理论不能圆满、即使有了理论也会“存在困难或问题”。  

 2019.8.8上网2019.8.12增加英文:

  

D 61                        To talk about neutrino

Abstract   New ideas about neutrinos

Key words  neutrino  graviton   repulton     electron    attracting force-line  

           repulsion force-line

 

What is neutrino? where does it sit in the family of particles? It is hard to write about neutrinos if you cannot answer these questions correctly. that is to say,

a correct basic theory is a prerequisite for the correct understanding of neutrinos.Chinese physics think of there are only two kinds of elementary particles: gravitons and repultons, and now the mainstream physics theory has named so many "basic particles" and more “particles”,this make “particle’s small family” becomes a big family, the true basic particles get inundation by them,true elementary particles are almost drowned by them.

neutrinos, in fact, are gravitons, the relationship between the two elementary particles and the force is:graviton sand out attracting force-lines, repultons sand out  repulsion force-line.

(1)attracting force-lines meet attracting force-lines form attracting force write as F1

(2)repulsion force-line meet repulsion force-line form repulsion  write as F2  

     (3)attracting force-lines meet attracting force-lines form attracting force too write as F3

but F3 < F1

To be equivalent to it generate attracting force between gravitons and generate attracting force between reputons. 

The point is, repulton is the same thing as electron, but, due to the data of electron mass (9×10-28 grams) was come from chemistry assumes “that hydrogen has only one electron around it”. From a physical point of view, Hydrogen atoms have to have lots of electrons around them to form a perfectly enclosed space possess electromagnetism neutral、free Brownian motion. According to the energy difference of cosmic rays,and suppose two elementary particles have similar masses,

Initial estimates of the mass of gravitons and repulons are less than 10-36 grams.The exact data need to be determined in future research.

These are the only elementary particles that make up protons and neutrons.

People naturally ask, what do the "relation", such as mesons (>, 200), cosmic ray particles (>, 600), and so on, have to do with two fundamental particles?

Article 《L04 matter’s evolution》narrated gravitons come together in two ways:,the one is

gravitons moving in high-speed directions in space could form "micro vortex galaxies",the other is graviton travel together, keep going straight at high speed, mean cosmic rays.

In "micro vortex galaxies" the graviton has been transformed into a cyclotron motion, kinetic energy no longer ACTS on the outside, become "atomic energy" and lurk inside protons and neutrons. In future, if a nuclear reaction occurs and protons and neutrons are completely decomposed, The two kinds of elementary particles change from cyclotron motion to linear motion and become cosmic ray particles.

Normally detected "neutrinos" infect are gravitons traveling at high speeds through space, but since it emits lines of attraction, no repulsion is formed against it. 

thus, this "neutrino" has the following characteristics:

(1a) Constant moves at high speed and shows up as the cosmos particles.

 (2a) Due to the above (1), graviton tend to travel together, so far this is not yet understood, take for there are many "kinds" of neutrinos, or "Has different tastes" or "has more than 600 kinds of cosmic ray particles.

 (3a) In an electric field it's acting in the opposite direction from the electron.

   Do you feel that the particle that Anderson found moving in the opposite direction of the electron is actually a graviton?

Think of it as a "positron", giving rise to the positron theory. But with obvious flaws:

How do positrons relate to protons, neutrons and atoms? Where do positrons come from when they shine? Where do the positrons go when the light gets dark? Can't

prove that mass and energy can vary each other(hence,to say that "photons have no mass" is not a basis, and to put "photons" in the position of "mass-less" equals vacuum, equaHere's a further discussion of neutrinos:

(1b) Where do neutrinos come from?

Answer: when protons "disintegrate",the original vortex motion of the gravitons overcome gravity binding scattered, become "particles" that move in a straight line. Neutrinos are produced by every star in space, every supernova explosion, every radioactive nuclear radiation. So, here's the answer to the question at the beginning of this article:What are neutrinos? it is a graviton as one of two basic (elementary) particles.It can be found all over the place.

(2b) Where do neutrinos go?

Answer:After "neutrino"  leaves the proton, flying through space at high speed (the speed is about the speed of light, the exact value remains to be determined). there was problem:

Will it leave "our universe" and disappear into space? Will not! The reason is, it emits attracting force- lines, when flying through space,the resulting balance of gravity,It doesn't affect its motion,so they're "eternal quanta ", speed is constant, if it left the physical universe and flew into space without stars,the gravitational attraction between its gravitational line and the physical universe will slow it down and make it gradually return! 

Therefore, even though the space is infinite, they cannot be lost!

So will neutrinos - gravitons - fly like this forever? No, their way out is:

They come together and join again in protons and neutrons. Its mechanism can be found in 《L01 modern opinion of particle》,《L04 matter evolution》and other articles on the website of www.chinesephysics.com, in a word, Neutrinos (gravitons) come from protons, neutrons, atoms, the disposition still protons, neutrons, atoms. May use a zen word:"Where you come from, go where you go”.

(3b) Is neutrino’s "neutral" properly defined? 

Answer:Neutrinos used to be called "electrically neutral particles",this is due to the fact that neutrinos travel in straight lines at very high speeds and do not show a trajectory deflection in ordinary electromagnetic fields, so to think it's neutral.In fact, the gravitons send out attracting force-lines, meet the force lines from other elementary particles and form the attracting force F1 or F3, this force makes it easy to aggregate.If the electromagnetic field (gravitational line, repulsive line distribution field) is strong enough, it will also take a significant trajectory deflection,In 1930, on the particle track diagram where the American physicist Anderson "discovered the positron," many cosmic ray particle trajectories are deflected, This shows that neutrinos It's not an “electrically neutral particle”.

(4b) is neutrino "symmetrical"?

Answer:Many people believe in particle symmetry, some people not only argue for particle symmetry, and also to "cosmic symmetry ", if symmetry is correct, it is supported by facts.

So here's the point, there are strictly symmetrical things and asymmetrical things in the universe,and things that are roughly symmetric. As action and reaction are strictly symmetric, its mechanism is:the action and reaction force are produced by the interaction of the same number of force lines, so they are absolutely equal;for another example, time is an asymmetric

 thing, it is a unidirectional, continuous, irreversible physical thing; Again example, Many plant and animal forms, are generally symmetrical, slightly, more symmetrical, finely, less symmetrical. In a word, the symmetry and asymmetry of things are determined by the existence of symmetry mechanism,no predetermination allowed,nor can it be expanded to "cosmic symmetry" by imagination alone.

Neutrino as graviton, can you say that the repulton(electron) is symmetric? 

It's whether we can find a mechanism of symmetry between them, since no neutrino symmetry has been found, "neutrino symmetry" cannot be assumed.

(5b) What do neutrinos have to do with protons? 

Answer:"L01 modern opinion of particle" and "L04 matter’s evolution" describe protons was gravitons ( neutrinos) which form "micro-vortex galaxies" by poly of accumulating energy ,   

Neutrons are "micro-vortex galaxies" formed by the accumulation of energy of gravitons and repultons. Thus everything in the universe (including our bodies) comes from "neutrinos" and electrons, can say; Neutrinos are far away, close to you.

(6b) What do neutrinos have to do with cosmic rays?

Answer:Straight - line neutrinos are cosmic ray particles. Of course, cosmic rays are often mixed with unexploded protons, neutrons, and "microvortexes" that have not yet fully split.

There are not many completely single neutrinos in cosmic rays, this is an important reason why its quality cannot be accurately known until now.

 

(7b) What do neutrinos have to do with forces?

Answer:Neutrinos -- gravitons -- emit attracting force- lines, we've talked about (1) and (3) above, It can form attracting force, It can now be seen that the source of Newtonian forces and any attracting force is precisely the attracting force-line from the graviton.

(8b) What do neutrinos have to do with matter?

Answer:The largest stable size of the neutrino (graviton) of the "micro vortex galaxy" is the proton;The largest stable size of the "microvortex galaxy" of neutrinos, electrons, repultons is the neutron, Therefore, neutrinos and electrons are the basic particles that make up atoms and molecules.These two are really fundamental particles! so far, physics has named a lot of "particles."With the exception of electrons, there is room for improvement. 

any macroscopic material formed from protons, neutrons, electrons, no exception, the relationship between neutrinos and matter,is it flesh and blood?

(9b) What about the current neutrino theory?

Answer:At the moment, neutrino theory is contending not complete,It's hard to convince people. But it is true that neutrinos travel at high speeds.Neutrino theory needs to be treated from the standpoint that there are only two kinds of elementary particles -- graviton and repulton. And the real particles in the universe are these two, most of the thousands of "particles" that have been named are "complex elementary particles" rather than really one particle.

and then there are particles that some theories say exist but carefully analyze that don't, the particle theory needs to follow the general rules of physics, as:the mass and shape of elementary particles cannot be changed,energy is conserved and cannot change mass,any equation that describes a change in physics must have the same physical dimensions on the left and right sides of the equals sign.

Otherwise, "theory" without mechanism will pass,make the theory incomplete,even with a theory "there are difficulties or problems".

 

 

 

 

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