L01 粒子今论 modern opinion about

2019-1-7

                                                          L01 粒子今论 

                                                            陈理士

                                      The modern opinion about particles 

                                                     S . G . Chinese

Abstract this text consider that the kind of particle was vainly much and to raise the new viewpoint of there are two kind of basic particle only 

Key word graviton repulton quantum elementary particle particle cosmic rays


(Text in English see the rear)



  提要 本文认为粒子种类虚多,提出了基本粒子仅有两种等新观点。

   

  关键词  基本粒子  引力子  斥力子  量子   粒子   宇宙射线

  

  一 粒子大观

  粒子(particle)家族成员处于不断扩大之中,一方面,仪器新测到一枚电子伏数值特殊的

“粒子”便意味着这个家族有了一个新成员,另一方面,理论的创新使“镜像粒子”、质量为零的“粒子”不时命名。

  从源头上看,为数众多的粒子可分两支,一支来自空间宇宙射线;一支来自物质原子的“裂变”。

  宇宙射线中已记录到600种以上“粒子”,它们似乎还应有各自的“反粒子”。

  经过原子试验和理论推测而获得命名的粒子有:


1. 质子、中子、电子;


2. 上夸克、下夸克、顶夸克、底夸克、粲夸克、奇异夸克……;


3. τ子、μ子、电中微子、τ中微子、μ中微子……;


4. 胶子、光子、西格斯子;


5. 玻色子;


6. 以上粒子的反粒子。

  

从数量上看,所列的粒子总数在1500种左右,但不能排除理论和试验还会增加的“新粒子”。它们依然可能来自对宇宙射线的测量和粒子轰击试验以及理论分析。面对数目如此众多的“粒子”,经过大量的试验,已经记录在案了大量试验数据,但是,迄今只能说“知之有限”,何以见得?

举电子为例,这是已经了解相当多的一种粒子,现认定氢原子外层有一枚电子,其质量为9.1066×10-28(-28次方)克。但是,若氢原子外层果真只有一枚电子,其外空间如何得以完善的屏蔽?它怎么可能呈电磁中性?其分子又怎样会存在布朗运动?

问题何在?答案是,氢原子外层并非一枚而是一份电子,这一份数目应当是足够多。可见,不能说对于电子已经充分了解。

对于这么多种不同的“粒子”,有必要首先从物理真实的角度深入了解,至于为它们的受力与演变建立数学方程则是其后的事。经验说明,此本末关系不能颠倒。

可见,电子比10-28 (-28次方)克要小得多。

  按此说,粒子是否已成为一个汪洋大海,要一一认清它们会使人力不从心了呢?其实也并非如此,因为,从以下叙述可见,粒子的种类,并不真有那么多。

  二 种类虚多

  上述粒子种类至少有一半是人们从理论上推论出来的,如反粒子、光子、西格斯子等。

正负、阴阳是人类从实践中形成的意识形态,自然界也确实存在不少对称事物,将对称观点应用于粒子是可以理解的,在电性质的描写上“同性相斥,异性相吸”似乎成为规律,但人们终不能满足于这类人性化的描述而需要进一步追问为什么,直至弄清事件的本质。

  “反粒子”观点是从反电子即“正电子”开始的,由于正电荷的存在,由于静电中存在引斥两种力,电子被规定带负电,这就是说,它乃是负电荷的发出者,若说正电荷由“正电子”发出,从道理上似亦通顺,这便是“正电子”的来源。可见,对于“正电子”的肯定或否定首先需要明确正电荷、负电荷的物理实质而不能满足于“同性、异性”的描述。

对电荷的分析从“摩擦生电”的分析开始,绝缘材料相互摩擦便可发生电荷,导体摩擦则不能产生电荷。各种不同材料总共可以摩出两种不同性质的电荷,即正电荷与负电荷,这是由作用力的吸、斥区别出来的。

  摩擦的物理含义是材料外层电子的相互驱赶,这一动作使受到摩擦部位的原子外层电子分布失去正常状态,趋于偏稀与偏密。亦即,使某些原子的外层电子偏少或偏多。对材料而言,偏多的电子是从偏少处驱赶过来的,总体上电子数量并无增减。原子外层电子偏多则如何?可以设想,它的表现为:

  1、 原子失去电中性,呈现负电位(带负电荷);

  2、 同另一个带负电荷的原子产生斥力;

  3、 同导体接触,多余的电子流失,恢复正常状态。

原子的外层电子偏少则使原子不能得到良好“密封”,内核的引力线从电子稀缺空间外漏,于是:

  1a、原子失去电中性,呈现正电位(带正电荷)

  2a、呈现吸引电子的态势;

  3a、同负电荷接触或同导体接触,获得电子恢复常态。

  负电荷与正电荷的产生是摩擦所致,但材料绝缘也是必要条件,绝缘使电子缺失或多余的状态得以保持,电荷方能显现。

  以上可见,尽管把“正负”、“阴阳”等概念引入了电磁领域,但真正起作用的是电子之间存在斥力,电子与原子核之间存在引力。后面关于“基本粒子”中还要谈到。可见电荷的负与正并非对称所致,正电荷的实质是引力线外漏。正电荷的生成并不涉及正电子,不能因为负电荷由电子引起就可开拓为正电荷由“正电子”引起。

  原子结构中只有电子,两种绝缘材料可以摩出正电荷来,其实质已如上述,但若说那里存在正电子则并无来源,所以需要明确正电荷是原子的一种电子层失常状态,并不涉及“正电子”,在任何情况下,只能通过提供电子去平衡正电荷。故不会有“纯”的正电流。

  诚然,人们可以将带正电荷的粒子流名为正电流,因此而增加一个不符其实的名词,但这样容易从理论上给人以误导,在粒子领域,此类不符其实的名词并非仅有。“正电子”是“反粒子群体”中比较显赫的一个,因为,从正负电荷的客观存在和电子的存在,似乎其存在不成问题。但通过以上叙述可见,正电荷的力并非另外有一种“正电子”所发生,乃是原子的外电子层密度偏稀力线外泄的结果,所以“正电子”似实而虚,说有,乃是误会与推测。第二个似乎存在的“反粒子”是“反质子”。按说从“镜像粒子”角度,“反质子”应当由“反夸克”等“反基本粒子”加上(负)电子组成,认为由“反质子”组成的“反物质”可发生斥力,用其制造出不用能量即可从地球上飞向太空的宇航工具从而达到节能。其实,即使真有这样的“反物质”,“节能”的愿望难以达到。因为宇航工具必须在星体间往来,“升空”不用动力,只是事情的一半,但斥力使它永远不能“降落”,若要降落,仍需动力!而且所需作的功,同升空完全相等,所以“反物质”不能使宇航最终节能。

  对于“反质子”的“修正”表现在规定“带负电荷的质子”为“反质子”,这种修正后的“反质子”是可以“制造”出来的,无非就是使中子在试验条件下再带上一份电子,中子在正常的情况下当然不吸引电子,但也还不排斥电子。这里要说的是,采取措施让中子带上负电荷对形成原子不利,除非真的有“正电子”方才能被吸引在外围,如果有了一个这样的“反氢”原子,它要存在的话,必须从空间游离出去以免面临空间电场中无处不在的电子,一但遭遇电子,这个“反氢”便不能存在,所以在当今的宇宙中,没有“正电子”,“反物质”的存身之地,何况以上已论述过“正电子”本身并不存在。没有正电子,还能有“反物质”吗?

  问题出在那里?就在于人们有了“对称”观点,相信“对称”是宇宙中的基本法则,认为在“宇宙大爆炸”中产生物质之时,正反粒子,正反物质的数量是同样的多,如果,一直不能验证这种近乎“信条”的观点,难道不可以改变思维方式,考虑宇宙中虽有大量的对称事物,但同时也有大量的不对称事物吗?某一事件是否对称,首先需有对称机制,例如,牛顿发现了“作用力等于反作用力”,这一对称机制使人信服而且经受得住检验,但是,温度由高向低改变就不存在对称机制,还可举出不少“不对称”的自然界的事件。因此,若某事件既被发现存在对称机制,又观察到对称现象,应当属于对称事物,反之,则为不对称事物。退一步说,即使真的发现了“正电子”,也不能开拓到存在反质子,反物质,反宇宙。根据什么说自然界存在“镜像粒子”呢?猜测只是猜测,不应视为理论,插上想象力的翅膀只能在想象的空间飞翔。经过“修正”以后的反质子是可能存在的,因为中子虽然不能吸引高速电子,但尚不排斥电子,上面已提到过这点,但是这样的“反质子”同对称观点所期望的“反质子”大相径庭,只是名称相同而已。

  “正电子” “反质子”不存在,使粒子家族收缩近50%的“在册户口”。第三个不实的粒子是“光子”,按现行理论,正负电子相合转变为“光子”, 正负电子的质量转化为光能。光子质量为零。光子属于光学范围,关于光的理论,现已兼收并蓄,将物理上发现的所有由电子表现出的能量过程称之为“光”。从甚低频电波、射频电波到波导中传播的电磁波,从红外光,可见光到紫外光,从紫外线、x射线到γ射线,全部视为同一事物:“光量子”行为。对于光的现代理论中,争议了三百年的波粒二论并未真正解决,波动论可举麦克斯韦方程为代表,微粒理论通过“波粒二重性”假说、“测不准定则”等的配合,以薛定谔方程为代表,方程既包含了波又包含了粒,似乎略站上风。

  但是,问题并不在于波粒两种理论的分歧而在于自然现象中确实存在“纯波动”、“纯微粒”、量子和不同的粒子,不同的波。

  若要理论贴合实际,只能用波动理论处理波动事件用粒子理论处理粒子事件,相互兼并实非明智之举。

  以可见光为例,三棱镜的折射显示,它是一种“纯电波”,传播介质为空气与透明体中的电子分布场,其能量为介质电子横向正弦运动的动能。尽管能量沿纵向传播,粒子(电子)并不作纵向运动,所以是一种“纯波”。这同量子、光子挂不上钩,若说“从光源发出一束光子,经过三棱镜转折成为不同速度,不同方向的光子”则缺少可信性。

  另举x射线为例,它是电子被加速、反射后射向空间的粒子(电子)束,在此粒子束中有无波动?如果将电子束的群速因素除开,设想有一个随粒子束运动的参照系统,在此中电子束便成为静态空间电场。任何电波当然可以在这个场中传播。所以,对于地面不运动的观察者,x射线同样存在“波动”,但由于“群速”,波长显得很短。从机理角度看,作为粒子束的x射线和它能够传播波动是不同的因果关系,将二者混在一起用以证明它“既是波也是粒”是理论的混淆,一团既有温度又有压力的气体,不能说它具有“温度、压力二重性”。物理学似乎应谢绝“二重性”这一术语,它容易使人满足一种调和的描述而放弃深追事件真正机理。

  要说x射线中的粒子―――电子是“光子”,显然不能成立,从哪里来的“正电子”又是如何同电子“结合”而形成“光子”的呢?阴极射线是速度较x射线低的电子束,在各种电器中,极为常用,当显象管的电极在高压电势驱动下产生电子射线时,它是光子吗?又怎样同“正电子”挂上钩呢?它其实并非光子,只是电子束而已。可见,被称为“光子”的,有的是单纯的光波,其折射性摒弃了粒子性;有的是电子射束,至于低频无线电波更难称之为“光子”。在电波被称之为“光子”的情况下,“光子没有质量”的叙述似乎并不违反实际,但是,在阴极射线、x射线、紫外线中,那里乃是电子而不是“光子”,“没有质量”则是不正确的。那个“由电子和正电子结合组成的光子”并不存在。

  在“光频率”以内,从紫外波,光波直至各种频率的电波,波动为主要特征,不应采用粒子理论的描述;在“频率”高于紫外线的区域,电子射线为主要的物理特征,但不涉及“正电子”及“光子”。

  在整个“光学所覆盖的范围内,并未发现“正电子”及“光子”存在的确切证据。所有用“光子“或”正电子“所做的解释,其理显得局限经不住质疑,从理论上欠缺完整性。至此,已经将“粒子”的种类,减少了1/2,后面将要叙述粒子的真实品种比设想的少得多,从本节已可看出目前“品种繁多”其中有虚。

  三 “质量为零”粒子与“可蜕变”粒子

  作为一个粒子,最本质的特征是可形成作用力。已知各种粒子毫无例外的符合这一点,正因为如此,人们才认为宇宙间存在95%左右的“暗物质”和“暗能量”。诚然,这是一起误会,误会起源于对“红移”作出了“高速离去”的判断而不考虑“红移”是否还有其他更可信的原因,但可看出,对于物质之间必定产生作用力的信任是没有争议的。反之,不能产生作用力便表明没有质量,但是,没有质量则属于“非物质”,非物质则不能成为“粒子”。所以,“质量为零” 的粒子不能存在!

  以前一度有人认为中微子没有质量和不受作用力。但不受作用力显然处于误会,它能在空间高速飞驰这本身便是力作用的结果,只是人们未能觉察其受力的机制而已,既受力,必有质量,目前还有些粒子被认为没有质量,可以推测,这样的粒子,或许根本就属于子虚乌有,或许真有其“粒”但必有质量,根据是:有质量必有作用力。

  “粒子可变”是一种判断,它的物理含义是什么?当质子增加电子“变”为中子时,用“变”表明中子性质不同于质子是对的,用“变”描述质子变化了成为另外一个截然不同的“粒子”则缺少证明,问题在于,质子、中子以及还有许多“粒子”它们并非真正的“一粒”,在下面将叙述,它们乃是众多基本粒子聚合的“小组”或“群体”。

  中子之所以“中”,由于质子这个群体中加入了新的电子成员后,它对空间电子不再表现出“吸引”而呈电中性,是电子间的相斥所致。“粒子”的“分裂”“蜕变”说明它具有可分性,凡可“分裂”“蜕变”的必定是一个“群体”真正的粒子是一粒,既不可能分裂,也不可能蜕变。若循名责实,只有真正的一粒才可算作粒子的话,粒子这个家族的成员就寥寥无几了。

  四 基本粒子

  什么是基本粒子?以往曾认为中子、质子是基本粒子,现今已将他两排除在外,但目前认定的12种基本粒子以后还会步中子质子后尘吗?因为至今对此并无严格定义,既然未予界定,“弹性”不可避免。所以,给出基本粒子的条件是必要的,当前,在大量的试验之后,经过分析,总结出这样的条件亦已可能,现列举如下:

  1 是作用力线的初始发出者;

  2 必须是一粒;

  3 是任何量级物质的构成者,同任何量级的物质有合适的组合机理;

  4 对于组成宇宙万物,其“品种”足够,既充分又必要

  5 所形成的力和对于物质的作用,从宏观到微观具有连续性。

6 不会发生“裂变”“蜕变”“转变”等任何变化

  对以上所列,需要“坚持”,如若不然,将使基本粒子种类虚增,同时也增加了困惑与误导。合乎条件的基本粒子有多少种?答,两种。哪两种?引力子和斥力子。

  上述答案似甚意外,但根据作用力分析,现已观察的各种力,从微粒到宏观物体,从工程到物理,无不可以分解为引斥两种最基本的作用力,因此,基本粒子有两种的设想虽显少,但合乎“充要”条件,问题只是,能否同形形色色的宇宙万物和宇宙的演变,同自然界已发现的“各种力”等所有相关事物建立有机联系。如果不能建立这种全方位的联系而只能局部、片面回答问题,其可置信度便要大打折扣。当前物理领域内此类局部,片面解答问题的“理论”已为数不少。 

  引力子向空间发出引力线,引力线同引力线作用形成引力F1。斥力子向空间发出斥力线,斥力线同斥力线作用形成斥力F2。引力线同斥力线作用形成引力F3,由于F3 <F2 ,斥力子易处于原子外层。基本粒子的作用力既不显得对称,也不适用人性化的定语加以描述,总体上显示引力占优势。

斥力子的力F2使得它们趋于分散,凡是有星体的太空均弥漫者它们,形成“空间电场”,这一自然提供的信息传播介质使人类可知若干亿光年外的空间信息。显然,斥力子就是电子(但质量远比现在认为的要小)。引力子是谁?现在尚不能肯定,原因是,F1使他们倾向于聚合,在已发现的各种“基本粒子”中,电中微子有可能是引力子,但也不能排除它依然是由若干枚引力子所聚合的可能性。

  对此的判别是,在今后的原子轰击试验中,会不会出现比它更小的粒子?若不能发现比它更小的粒子,才能大体认为它是引力子。若电中微子是引力子,它同电子形成引力F3 ,根据已经人性化的电学名词,可以说它带“正电”,至于它是否受到很大引力可从中微子在空间高速运动来判断,凡是高速运行的粒子,原先曾被很大引力吸引在质子、中子之内且在质子中子内高速回旋,一旦核反应使质子解体,从核内飞向空间,其速度等于原来回旋运动的切线速度。所以,高速度说明原先受到强大的克服离心力的引力。引力子的聚合倾向是在引力作用下产生的,引力使粒子以及任何规模的物质均倾向于“聚”,但是在聚合中引力的大小并不随质量线性改变,这使我们误以为宇宙间存在“四种力”,其机理下面叙述。

  以上讨论了两种基本粒子,它们已足够组合成为现已发现的其它“基本粒子”,不需要第三种基本粒子参与,以后,将叙述这两种基本粒子如何合成质子以及质子同中子的区别。至此,可见,真正“一粒”的粒子,只有这两种!

  五 基本粒子和量子

  大量粒子具有一定量级动能是早已发现的现实,由此有了《量子力学》,在导出计算量子行为的方程的同时,同样必要弄清机理,需要获得解释的问题是:

  1 所有粒子均为量子吗?它们的能量来自何处?

  2 存在没有能量的粒子吗?是什么粒子?

  为了严谨,当发现粒子在很多场合下具有一定能量时,不能得出“所有粒子都是量子”的结论,这需要证明“没有一粒粒子可以不是量子”。在空间电场中的大量电子,绝大多数不是量子而只是电子即斥力子。当这些电子最初从恒星飞出时,本来具有很高的速度,其所携带的动能也合乎一定量级,是名副其实的量子,但进入空间电场后,受到斥力作用,能量逐渐转移,速度降低,最后停止飞行融入空间电场。

  但物质原子外层的电子则保持为量子状态,这是在正常温度下。如果受到降温,它们的动能便随之下降,其极限情况是离心力已不足保持在轨道上旋转,这些外层电子被引力向中心引过去,这枚原子便成为玻色子。引力子则通常处于具有一定能级的量子状态,为什么?因为对它们不存在斥力,其动量mv只被转变而不被消耗,不论怎样转变,粒子质量m不变,它的线速度v的大小不会变,所改变的是运动方式,对此,稍后再叙。

  目前,观测电子的行为比较容易,观测引力子很难。因此,通常受到观测的量子大部分是离开原子飞行于空间的电子,还有那些被认为是“粒子”其实是一定数量基本粒子聚合在一起的“群体”,这些“群体”有的来自宇宙射线,有的来自原子分裂,蜕变。可见,并非所有粒子都是量子,并非电子的能量终身携带。在宇宙空间,静态电子也是可能存在的。但是,能量的不断转移,使空间电场中的静态电子常常处于微骚动之中。

  六 质子、中子和宇宙射线

  原子的建筑材料有三:电子、质子和中子。电子是基本粒子,质子是什么粒子?它同中子关系如何?回答问题需要了解质子、中子是怎样形成的?若将视界开拓到广阔空间,可以发现,这里是各种“粒子”、中子、质子、原子、宇宙射线的“作坊”。因为空间有不断供应的原料,有聚合所需的动力,有足够广袤的尺度。以亿亿计数的众多恒星,不停的向空间发射出两种基本粒子。斥力子充斥空间,形成空间电场,它们仅在离开恒星不太长的时间内具有较高速度,成为x射线,不久便逐渐减速,将能量传递给空间电场,当人们测量到这种“微骚动”的能量时,相信它是“大爆炸”的证明(其实非也)。

  引力子飞入太空则为“终身量子”,因为它接受不到任何斥力,即使发生“碰撞”也不损失动能。如果在空间有两枚引力子相对飞近,其最小距离在“埃”量级以内,它两必定被引力拴住不能分开(在实验室中用很快的粒子去碰撞也很难使质子、中子彻底分散),但二者原先的动量还在,结果便是,形成一个“微双星”相互回旋,原先直线运动的动能转变成为回旋运动相应的能量,这种转变与工程不同,乃是效率为1的转变。强大的引力克服离心力,使这两枚引力子如胶似漆的不分离。转变结果是,空间少了两枚以近乎光速飞行的引力子而增加了“一粒”在那里急旋的“微双星”,原先那两枚横空直飞的引力子随时可对受他撞击的任何物体显示出动能mc2,现在他两紧密相伴不肯分开,似乎能量已不复见到,在此情况下,认为“微双星”已经将能量变为质量虽然不合实际,却也可以理解。这种直线运动转变为回旋运动的过程不妨名为“蓄能聚合”,聚合将动能转变为内能,显然,这就是“原子能”。

  “微双星”并未占用两枚引力子的全部力线,只有约1/2力线相互作用,剩余1/2力线依然向空间伸出(参见S-N磁极的力线图)。于是“微双星”伸向空间的引力线,等于一枚引力子伸出的力线数,在此情况下,“双星”必然向“多星”发展,在“成员”增加,体积增大的同时,多星逐渐具有一定群速,剩余力线总量虽然变动不大但密度却趋于降低,所以,规模不能无限增加,到达一个阈值,力线所生成的力已不能拴住从身边飞过的引力子时,“微多星”或称之为“微涡旋星系”的规模不再增大。若问此规模是多大?答:1.67248×10-24(-24次方)克,此数值能给出6位有效本身表明,粒子聚合严格的受到力平衡制约,用“抓中药”方式考虑“粒子”组成则偏于粗犷。

上述达到阈值的“粒子”便是质子,因为它由引力子按“蓄能聚合”方式组成,所以它的性质便是:

1 同电子间存在引力F3,按照现行规则说,带正电;

2 它的内部蕴涵着粒子动能mc2

3 依然有剩余引力线外伸,约等于一枚引力子的力线总数。

4 质子形成时具有一定线速,但远小于光速C,这是由各种方向的引力子不能准确对称,使聚合后群速不为零。

  这里引入“聚合效应”一词用以描述上述剩余力线数量不随聚合度增加而其密度随聚合度减低的物理机制,对这一机制的领悟使我们得以看清,所谓“强作用力”“弱作用力”和牛顿引力其实出于一辙,而电磁力也可通过原子状况的分析看出和以上“三种”力同源。

  总之,“自然界存在四种力”是物理界在观察不到这四种力之间的关联后不得已作出的判断。但判断的不足也很明显,因为它们之间只存在“量别”,“量别”通常难以作为划分种类的主要依据。现在看,由于“聚合效应”,从单个引力子到质子(即所谓强作用范围)从质子、中子到原子,从原子到宏观物质,剩余力线都不能随“聚合度”线性改变,从而引起“自然界存在四种力”的提出,质子同电子间作用如何?

  F3使质子倾向于吸引电子,电子进入质子也作为一枚回旋运动成员将引起“这枚质子”对电子的吸引力下降,因为已进入的电子排斥其他电子,最终使这枚质子变为不能吸引电子的中子。可以设想,进入质子的电子是速度小于光速较多的电子,否则,质子连引力子都引不住,更引不住高速电子。

  由此看,空间先生成质子,部分质子成为中子,其概率由当地空间场中达到射线速度的电子密度确定。质子、中子都是一个蕴含核能的“微涡旋星系”说是“粒子”,已有些不地道,对于那些由质子轰击而分裂生成的不少“粒子”,还能说那是“一粒”或“粒子碎片”吗?真正为一粒的粒子,只有电子和引力子,其余的“粒子”,乃是不同聚合度下的粒子组群而已,本文无意于修改已有名词,但认为有必要认清其物理真实。两个飞行方向相近且又逐渐接近的引力子会发生何种演变?结果是“代数聚合”,即两枚引力子合并成为贴近的一双,质量、能量均符合四则运算相加规则。

两枚夹角为dα的粒子之所以不按矢量规则相加而按“代数和”方式相加,原因同“蓄能聚合”类似,由于在引力作用下,粒子在不损失能量的情况下改变运动方向,使dα趋于零,既然没有能量损失,两粒子方向相同后动能等于原先二者的动能之和。

  这里描述的便是“宇宙射线”的产生机制,根据“聚合效应”,宇宙射线也会不断扩大聚合组群而且也大体上以质子的质量为聚合上限。任何聚合度的宇宙射线粒子可能被探测到,因为,它们高速直线运动,并不隐藏自己的动能,所以,当以“电子伏”恒量粒子的时候,测量者的结论是“宇宙射线中有很多种粒子”。上面已分析过,它们并非真正的“一粒”,问题在于现行测量方法的局限性。如果提高“电子伏”的分辨精度,宇宙射线的“粒子种类”还要多得多,这也是一种“虚多”。




(2006.8发表于昆明《第三届全国物理及其应用学术研讨会》并收入《科技学术论文集 物理及其应用》2006)

 注:2019.3.16 加注: 本文2008/5/27登上本网站原先架构,2019.1月现在的新架构投入使用后未设计“加入时间、阅读次数”



                                                L01      modern opinion of particles 

                                                                 S. G. Chinese


Abstract this text consider that the kind of particle would void much and to raise the new viewpoint of there are two kinds of basic particle only 

Key word elementary particle (basic particle)  

graviton   repulton   quantum   particle  cosmic rays


   1 grand sight of particles

  The members of particle household in constant expand, one aspect is when the instrument find out a particle has special electron volt it mean this household to have a new member, on the other aspect, theory’s innovation make “mirror-image particle”、zero-quality particle often named.

  To watch from headwaters, numerous particles can divide to two branches, the one from cosmic ray of space, the other one from “fission” of atom of the matter.

  It has recorded over 600 type of particles from cosmic ray, each seems still has their “antiparticle”.

The particle named through atom test and theory surmise have:

  1 proton、 neutron、 electron

  2 .up quark 、down quark、 top quark、bottom quark、 charmed quark 、strange quark etc.

  3. two- kind of meson(τ、 μ)and three kind (elect. 、τ、μ)of neutrino etc.

  4 .gluon、photon、Higgs

  5. boson

  6. anti-particle of all above particles

  The total of above particles about at 1500 kinds, but it can’t rule out that theory and test to increment new particle yet. They still might come from the survey for cosmic rays and the test of to bombard particle and the analysis of theory. Face so numerous particles, through large numbers of test, it have record large quantity of test data, but, until now only say “have to know limited”, why?

  For example of electron, this particle has been understand fairly much ,now maintain there is one electron on the outer shell of Hydrogen atom, it’s quality is 9.1066×10-28gram, 

If it is true, how can screen its space goodly? How can be to offer neutral of electro-magnetic ? How can have Brown motion for its molecule? Wherein the problem? The solution is, on the outer shell of Hydrogen atom there are not one but one share of electrons , they would much enough, it is clearly, can’t to say have full understanding to the electron.

  Towards so more “particles” of unlike mode, first, should be deep find out from physical true, as far as establish mathematic equation fore their stress and development is the matter of subsequent, Experience says this relation of ins and outs can’t take reversal.

It is thus clear, electron is far small than 10-28(10 to the power of 28) gram.

  According to this, whether particles are become boundless so let some one unable to recognize every one of them clearly? In fact that is not, because the kinds of particles dose not truly so much.

    2 the kind is empty much 

  At least the half of above kinds of particle are come out from guess of the theory, such as antiparticle、photon、Higgs etc.plus-minus、negative positive is humanity’s ideology which come from practice, there are exist not a few of symmetry things in the nature yet, put the viewpoint of symmetry use for particle is able to understand, when to describe the nature of electricity, “repulsion each other for the same-sex and draw each other for opposite-sex ” seems become discipline, but people can't to satisfy with this humanization describe at final and need further intensively ask for why, until the essence of happening clearly.

  The viewpoint of “antiparticle” is begin from anti-electron mean positron, due to exist of positive charge, and due to exist tow kinds of drawing and reproving force, so to set electron carry negative electricity, even to say, it is the object of to issue negative charge, if to say the positive charge come from “positron” it seems clear and smooth on the principle, thus the origin of “positron”.It is, to be sure or negative for “positron” need to clear the physics substance at first and can’t satisfied by the describe of “same-sex、opposite-sex”.

  Begin to analysis for electric charge from “friction born electric charge”, the insulating material friction each other can born electric charge, electrical conductor can’t got electric charge through friction.Every kind of material may be to rise two qualitative electric charge, it is, positive charge and negative charge, the distinction is absorb or repulsion of acting force.

  The physical meaning of friction is the outer layer electrons of material drive each other, this action let distribution of that electrons of atom of friction part to loss normal state, tend to dense or rare. Namely some outer layer electron of atom more or less, as say to the material, the more electrons is come from less by drive, as a whole, the quantity of electron not more or less. How about more of outer layer electrons of atoms? maybe assume, its appear as:

   1、atom lose of electro-neutrality , to appear negative potential (carry negative charge)

   2、to cause repulsion force with other atom of carry negative charge

   3、when contact with conductor it cause redundant electron run off, so get right.

  The electrons less of atom’s outer layer let it not able well “seal”, the gravity line of nucleus could leak from space of electron scarcity , as so:

   1a、the atom lose of electro-neutrality, to appear positive potential (carry positive charge)

   2a、to appear the state of attract to the electron

   3a、contact with negative charge or conductor will got electron and recover normal

  To generate negative charge or positive charge from friction, but material insulation is also the requirement, insulation let the state of electron less or more get keep so charge just can to appear.

  From above-mentioned can see, although to draw “positive、negative” “feminine、masculine” and so on idea into electromagnetism domain, but it really react is the repulsion force between electrons and the gravitation between electron and atomic nucleus.About this in “basic particle” at rear will be to refer yet.

  It can see, the charge of negative or positive does not cause by symmetry, the substance of positive charge is gravity line get leak out.The positive charge be produced not at all touch upon positron, it can’t according to the negative charge cause from electron then open up to the positive charge cause from positron.

  Only electron in atom structure, two kinds of friction material can get positive and negative charge through friction, its substance as above stated, if to say there exist positron it have not source, so needs make clear that positive charge is atom’s electronic shell abnormal, and don’t touch upon positron, under what ever circumstances, only can be supply electron to balance of positive charge.So it has not “simple” positive current.

  Indeed, men can name “positive current” for the flowing particles they carry positive charge, therefore to raise one noun which is short of the reality, but it is easy to make misguiding in theory, in the particle domain, the noun of this falls of reality isn’t only one.“Positron” is a distinct one in the “anti-particle colony”, after that first glance, from the positive charge、negative charge and electron are all objective exist, it seems has not problem with exist “positron”.But through above relating can see, the force of positron is not from a another particle of “positron”, it is the result of that atom less of the shell electrons so make force line leak, therefore, “positron” seems true but empty, if say true, that is mistake and surmise.

  The second “antiparticle” of seems existence is “antiproton”, from the angle of “mirror particle”, “antiproton” should make up by anti-quark and so on “anti-basic particle” add electron, man to think the “antimatter” which make up by “anti proton” may be happen repulsion-force, to use it can be make the space flight tool which can be fly from earth to space without energy so save the energy.In fact, if really have this “antimatter”, the desire of “save energy” is hardly reach. Because of space flight tool must be go back and forth between the star, rise need not power is a half of the matter, but the repulsion force will cause it can’t to land, if should land, need power yet ! And this power equal to the land power also, so “antimatter” can’t let save energy on astronavigation.

  The correcting to the “antiproton” display on set:“ proton carry negative charge ” to be “antiproton”, this “antiproton” is can be made, only let neutron carry a share of another electrons, under general way the neutron do not attract of electron, but also not repel of electron.Here went to say, adopt a measure let neutron carry negative charge would harmful to form atom, unless there is truly have “positron” it can be attracted at the surrounding, if there is one this “anti-hydrogen” atom, if should exist, it must away from space in order to avoid face ubiquity electrons in the space, if once face electron, this “anti-hydrogen” will can’t exist, so within present cosmos, have not the field to stand the “positron” “antimatter”, much less “positron” is not exist as above treatise. If hasn’t “positron”, so can has “antimatter” else?

  Where is the problem? It only rest with “symmetry” viewpoint of men, they believe “symmetry” is the basic law in the cosmos, regard when to product the matter after the “big bang”, particle and anti-particle 、matter and anti-matter are in the same quantity, if all along it can’t to verify this viewpoint of seems like “symbol”, could it be change the mode of thinking to consider although there are vast of symmetry object in the cosmos but also have vast of un-symmetry object? whether one object is symmetry should have the symmetric mechanism in first, such as, Newton finds the “acting force is equal to reaction force”, this symmetry mechanism let men to convince and also had supporting by test, but the temperature from high to low is not symmetry matter, maybe to lift more “un-symmetry” nature matters else. So some matter since find it existing both symmetric mechanism and symmetric phenomenon, it should belong to symmetric matter, conversely, should belong to un-symmetric matter. Make a concession, even if the “positron” is true, it can’t open up to exist “antiproton” “antimatter” “anti-universe”. What is the basis for to say the nature exist “mirror particle”? The guess is just the guess, not ought treat to the theory, the wing of fancy can fly in the fancy sky only.After “revise”, the antiproton can be exist, because of although the neutron can’t attract to the high speed electron but not exclude it yet, this “antiproton” be quite different from the “antiproton” of which symmetric viewpoint expected, only the name is same.

  none “positron” “antiproton” let the household of particle shrink about 50% members.The third untrue particle is “photon”, according to present theory, positive electron and negative electron can merge become two “photons”, their quality transform to optical energy, and regard the quality of photon is zero.Photon belong to the range of optics, about the theory of light, now has contain any thing and every thing of all energy process from electrons, call it is “light”, from “VLF electric wave , RF electric wave to the electromagnetic wave propagate in wave guide, from infrared light、visible light to UV-light, from ultraviolet radiation、X ray to γ ray”, regard above all in one thing:action of “light quantum”.In the modern theory of light, It have dispute 300 years of “two theory of wave and particle” does not truly got solving, wave theory may hold up MX equation for representative, corpuscular theory through the coordinate by the hypothesis of “wave-particle duality”、“rule of indeterminacy” and so on and to use Schrodinger equation act as representative, his equation both contain wave and particle so seems slight stand on upper hand.

  However, the problem dose not on the difference of wave and particle and there is really exist 

“simple wave motion”、“simple corpuscular”、quantum and unlike particle and unlike wave. 

  if request the theory joint reality, it can with wave theory to treat wave event and with particle theory to treat particle event, to take over each other or to instead each other are all sensible act.

  For the example of visible light, the refraction from triple prism had shows, it is a “simple electric wave”, its medium is electric field of air and transparent body, the energy is the kinetic energy of medium’s electron with cross sinusoidal oscillation. Although the energy is spread along the longitudinal direction, the particle (electron) dos not motion along portrait, so it’s a “simple wave”. It didn’t correlation with quantum、photon, if to say “a truss of photons which transition through triple prism becomes different speed and different direction photon”, that’s lack of credibility.

  Another example of X ray, it was a accelerated and reflected electron beam, is there the wave in this beam? If except the function of group speed, to think there is a reference system follow electron beam to go, in this system the electron beam becomes static space electric field, any electric wave sure can spread in it. So to the static viewer on earth, X ray exist “wave” also, but due to “group speed”, the wave length is very short.inspect from reason, X ray is particle beam and it can spread wave are the different things, have different causality, mix they to one and prove they“both wave and particle” that is mix up the theory, it can’t say the gas with two-ness of temperature and pressure, physics seems should politely refuse the term of “two-ness”, it is likely to let person satisfy a harmony description so to give up the true of event.

  If to say the particle of X ray is photon that can’t stand clearly, where come from “positron” and how can it joints with electron into photon? Cathode ray is the electron beam which the speed is lower then X ray, this is in common usage in all kind of electrical equipment, when picture tub’s electrode to cause of electron ray by drive of high voltage, is it the “photon”? And how connect with “positron”? It does not “photon” really, only the electron beam. It can see, by the name of photon, some to be the simple light wave, its refracting property is spurn of particle character;some to be electron beam, as to the lows radio wave hardly to call for “photon”.when called electric wave to “photon”, “photon haven’t quality” seems reality, but cathode ray、X ray、ultraviolet ray are all the electrons and does not “photon”, “none of quality” is untrue. It is inexistence of “make up of photon by electron and positron”.

  Inside of the “optical frequency”, from ultraviolet wave、light wave until the wave of every kind of frequency, wave motion is the main character, to describe them should not with particle theory;at the region of “frequency” higher then ultraviolet ray, electron ray is main physic character but did not involve “positron” and “photon”.

  In whole range of optical overwritten, it have not find really proof of exist of “positron” and “photon”.All explain use “photon” or “positron” are appear limited of reason and can’t bear of 

doubt, it is short of integrity in theory.thus there is lower the kind of particle 1/2, it will talk about the kind of particle is more few at rear, we can see from this section at the present time “kind very much” of particle but have empty among them.

  3 “zero quality” particle and “change able” particle

  To regard for a particle, the most essential character is may be form of acting force, it has to know every kind of particle are fit this, just in this way, think of there are about 95% “dark matter” and “dark energy” exist in the cosmos. Indeed, it is a mistake, the mistake come of make the judgment of “high speed away” about “red move” and without regard to whether “red move” has more believable reason, but can see, there is have no debate for trust of it must be cause acting force between matters.On the other hand, none of acting force is to show none of matter and non-quality, it belong to “immateriality”, immateriality can’t become “particle”, so the “zero quality” particle can’t being!

  Formerly, for a time some one regard the neutrino non-quality and un-bear acting force.But un-bear acting force is mistake clearly, neutrino can fly with high speed shows that is the result of act of force, only people can’t discover the mechanism of bearing stress, if have force, it must have quality, at the present time, there is still regard some particle non-quality, it can infer, these particles may be belong to “in between nowhere” or t truly exis but must be have quality, it according to :quality should have acting force.

  “particle variable” is a judgment, what is the physic meaning? When the proton added the electron change to neutron, use “change” to describe that proton unlike neutron is right, if say change to a other not same “particle” is lack of prove, the problem is, proton、neutron and more “particle” does not truly “a grain”, it will take about at below, there are “group” or “colony” polymerized by much basic particles.

  The neutron can neutrality because of the electron as new member add in the proton so it is no longer appear of draw the electron and to show electric neutralization, it be caused by the electron repulsion each other. “Fission”、“slough off” to explain they are separable, “fissionable” and can “slough off” to explain it is a “colony”, but the true particle is one granule, both impossible fissionable and slough off.If want the name accord with the reality, only the truly one granule may count as particle, the members of particle family would be very few.

   4 Basic particle

Who is the basic particle? Before had regard the neutron and proton was, now had exclude of them, but if the 12 kinds of basic particle of currently firmly will got exclude yet? Until now, it has not tight definition for the basic particle, so elasticity is ineluctability, to give out the condition is necessary, now, after much test and through analysis can sum this condition up as fellow:

   1b it is the initial generator of acting force line

   2b must be one granule

   3b it is the constitutor of matter, have assemble mechanism with the matter of any quantity class

   4b the kinds are both full and necessary for constitute to cosmos everything

   5b the forming force and act to the matter from macroscopic to microscopic have continuity

   6b shouldn’t to happen any change such as “fission” “decay” “transform” etc.

  It should persistence to thus, otherwise well put the kind of basic particle get void raise, at same time it also raise the perplexity and the misguide. How many basic particles accord with these conditions? answer:2kinds.what are these two kinds? Graviton and repulton.

  Above answer seems unexpected, but the analysis according to the acting force, every force, from particle to macro matter, from engineering to physics, all may be divided to two kinds of force:attracting force and repulsion force, so although the imagine of there are two kinds of basic particle is few, but accord with “sufficient and necessary condition“, the problem is, can you build organic connections with all belongs of mixed cosmic inventory、cosmic evolution、”all kinds of force” of already find in nature etc.if can’t build this connection but partly、one-side to answer the problem, the confidence then give a discount largely.Present physics field this kind of theory partly、one-side to answer the problem does not a few.

  The graviton send out attracting force-line to space, both this force-line act each other form gravitation F1.repulton send out repulsion force line,both this force-line act each other form repulsion force F2.Attracting force-line act with repulsion force line form gravitation F3, because of F3<F1, so the repulton is in outer position of atom.The acting force of basic particle both un-symmetry and unfit to describe with humanity terminology, to sum up, the attracting force is occupy superiority.

  Force F2 let they go to scatter over interstellar space, form the “space electric field”, this nature provide medium of electric wave let mankind can be felt space information away from some hundred million light-year.

  It’s clearly, repulton just is electron (but its quality is far small then now regarding).Who is graviton? Now can’t to affirm it, because F1 let they make polymerizing, among the being find “basic particles”, electric neutrino may is, but can’t rule out the possibility of it still was polymerization of some graviton.

  The judge is, if find smaller particle then it in atom bombard test, if can’t find smaller particle from now one, then may general think it is graviton. if electric neutrino was graviton, it can form attracting force F3 with electron, can say it carry “positive charge”,

  as for if it bears large gravitation, can judge from it’s with high speed in the sky, this speed is equal to the speed of they circularity in proton, high speed explain it had been bear large attracting force so in the proton、neutron and circle round with high speed, once the nuclear reaction to make proton break up, from nuclear inner fly to space, its speed is equal to the tangential velocity of original circle round.Therefore, high-speed explain original bear strong attracting force of overcome centrifugal force.The polymerize trend of graviton come from the acting of attracting force, attracting force let matter of every scope are all make for “polymerize”,but magnitude of attracting force is not linearity change follow matter much or few, this condition let we misunderstand of there are “four kinds of force” in cosmos, the reason see later.

  Above discussed two kinds of basic particles, they enough combine to other “basic particles” of now has been find, should not to participate in the third particle, later well explain this two kinds of basic particle how form to proton and neutron and the distinction of proton and neutron.So can see, the particle of true “one grain” are this two kinds only!

   5 basic particle and quantum

  A large number of particle possess kinetic energy of fixed order of magnitude, the reality was find long ago, due to this so had the《quantum mechanics》,at same time of guide the equation about calculate quantum action, it should clear the mechanism, the problems which need get explanation:

   1c If all particles are quantum? Where come from of their energy?

   2c If exist none energy particle? What is this particle?

  For tight and prudent, when find the particle possess fixed energy in many occasion, can’t get the conclusion of “all particles are quantum”, it need to prove “there is hasn’t one particle may not to be quantum”.A great quantity of electrons ( in the space electric field) does not quantum but are general electrons.When electrons fly out from star, they have very high speed and carry fixed energy with order of magnitude primarily, are the perfectly justifiable quantum, but when into space electric field, accept the action of repulsion force, the energy shift gradually and reduce the speed, stop the fly and merge into this field at last.

  But the outer layer electron of atom is keep quantum states, this is under the normal temperature.if the temperature get fall, electron’s kinetic energy fall away also, the limit state is centrifugal force of outer electrons be not enough hold they turn on the orbit, these outer electrons would go to center so become the boson.

  Gravitons are always be hold the condition of fixed energy level, why? Because it is not exist repulsion force with them, their momentum MV only can change and can’t attrition, no matter how change, the quality M of particle does not change, its linear velocity V does not change, the changing is motion way, later will say it more.

  Now it is essay to observe action of electron but is very hard to graviton.So usually the observed quantum for the most are electrons which are away from atom and fly in to space, also have that be know as “particle”, in fact they are a colony of fixed quantity of basic particle, some of they come from cosmic rays, some from atom split or metamorphosis.It can see, does not all particles should to be quantum, the energy of electron can’t hold its energy forever. In the space, may be exist the static electron.But follow energy uninterrupted shift, it makes this static electrons often get micro uproar in the space.

   6 proton、neutron and cosmic rays

  the construction materials of Atom has 3 kinds:electron、proton and neutron.Electron is basic particle, what is the proton? What relation with it and neutron? For answer the questions it needs understand about how to form of them, if put scope to the vast space, here is a “workshop” of “particle”、neutron、proton、atom、cosmic rays.Because there have the materials of can be get continuously, and have the power which polymerization needs, and vast space.Millions upon millions stars emission tow kinds of basic particles continuously.The electron(repulton)be full of space and form the space electric field, they have higher speed in a not long after when leave star, form the X-ray and soon reduce speed gradually, give the energy to space electric field, when people measured this energy which show by “micro disturbance”, believe it was the proof of “cosmic mass blasting”(dose not in real).

Graviton fly to space become “lifelong quantum”, because it does not get any repulsive force and not loss kinetic energy even happen collision.If there are two gravitons fly close up in space and the min distance in “A”, they must be tie by attracting force and can’t separate(in the laboratory also hardly let proton thoroughly scatter even to collide with fast particle), but the kinetic energy of both early hold would still exist, the result is, to form a “micro double star” and mutual circle round, the early kinetic energy of rectilinear change to the kinetic energy of rotation movement, this change is different from engineering and efficiency=1.strong attracting force overcome the centrifugal force, so this two gravitons be deeply attracted to each other.After change, space is short of two gravitons and add one “micro double star” in rapid rotation, the two former gravitons fly across space always show its kinetic energy mc2 to every thing which to meet, now they close together and never divide up, the kinetic energy of they seems never behold, under this condition, regard the quality of “micro double star” had change to energy though does not close the reality but may get understand.The process of rectilinear movement change to circularity movement may name for “polymerization of storage energy”, polymerization let kinetic energy change to inner energy, clearly, this is quite right the “atomic energy”.

  “micro double star” haven’t occupy all force-line of two gravitons, only 1/2 force line had acting each other, surplus 1/2 force-line still stretch to space(refer to the force diagram of magnetic pole S-N).So the attracting force-line stretch out from “micro double star” is the same as one grain of graviton, in this case, “double star” certain develop to “multi star”, increase the member and volume, at same time the “micro multi star” have fixed group velocity gradually, though the total surplus force line not largely change but its density tend to low, so the scale of “micro multi star”( or call it is “micro vortex galaxy”) can’t infinite raising, when it reach to the threshold quantity, the attracting force which form from force line already can’t tie any graviton which fly at side, this scale is 1.67248×10-24 (10 to the power of -24)gram, this figure has six-digit effective-value shows, particle polymerization suffer restricting of force balance strictly, use “catch traditional Chinese medicine” mod to think “particle’s” make up is lean rugged.

  Above mentioned “particle” of reached threshold value is proton, because of it is make up by graviton with “polymerization of storage energy” mode, so its nature is:

    1d between it and electron form the attracting force F3, according to modern rule it bring positive charge 

    2d its inside contains the particle’s kinetic energy mc2

    3b it still has surplus attracting force-line, sum total of them approximate one graviton’s

    4b when the proton is forming, it has fixed linear velocity, but far less then light velocity, because the graviton from every direction and can’t symmetry, so after polymerization the group velocity does not equate to zero

  Here guide in the technical terms of “polymerization effect” to describe above physics mechanism of the sum surplus force line is not increase follow degree of polymerization but its density does reduce follow degree of polymerization, from this effect can see, so called “strong acting force” “weak acting force” “Newton gravitation” come from the same source, and through analysis of the atom state can see the electromagnetic force also have same source with them.

  In a word, “there are four kind of force in the nature” is physical field can not help but judge of it, because can’t observe the contact between this four kind force, but the problem is, only difference on the quantity and does not on quality of them, generally the difference of quantity is hardly become the basis for judge of difference of nature. Now can see, due to “polymerization effect”(it have described in《development of matter》), from a graviton to proton (in so called the strong acting range), from proton to neutron and atom, from atom to macro matter, the surplus force line are all can’t linear gain follow “polymerization level”, thus lead to raise “there are four kind of force in the nature”.How is the action between proton and electron?

  Force F3 let proton attract to electron, electro into the inner of proton become a member of “micro vortex galaxy” yet, it make “this proton” reduce attract ability to electron, because of the inner electron discriminate against other electron, at last “this proton change to neutron and loss the suction to the electron.May be imagine, the access electron is the electron of velocity more less than light velocity, if not, proton can’t draw a graviton, more can’t draw a high speed electron.

  Thus to see, space prior generate protons, part protons become neutrons, its probability is decided by electron’s density of reach to ray velocity of local space field.Protons and neutrons are all the “micro vortex galaxy” of contain nuclear energy and call it “particle” does not true, can we call which is “particle” or “splinter of particle” to those borne from shell atom? Only graviton and repulton are the true particle of “one grain”, all the rest are the particle group of different polymerization degree, this essay have not intention of revise current term, but regard need to clear the real situation.

  If two gravitons have same flying direction and close up gradually, the result is “algebraic add”, two graviton combine to a pair, the quality and kinetic energy are all conform to the addition rule of arithmetic.

  Two particles of included angle dα why don’t add with the mode of vector but with the mode of “algebraic sum”, the reason is similarity with “polymerization of storage energy”, because under the action of attracting force the particle can be change direction and do not loss energy, so let dα tend to zero, since it have not loss of energy, after this two particles possess same direction their kinetic energy would be equal to sum of both former kinetic energy.

  Here describe the born mechanism of the cosmic rays, according to the “polymerization effect”,the “particle” of cosmic rays also enlarge the members of polymerizing group constantly, , it would to the limited of proton in general also.Any degree of polymerization of “particle” of cosmic rays can be surveyed, because of they movement with high velocity and linearity, they do not hiding their kinetic energy, so when survey particle with “electron volt”, the conclusion of survey seems “there are many kind of particles of cosmic rays”.above have analysis, that is not truly “one grain”, the problem is the limitations of method of present survey.If raise of survey accuracy, the “kind of particle” of cosmic ray may be much more, it is a kind of “empty much” yet.