L06 夸克 Quark
L06 夸克 Quark
( text in Englishsee the rear)
（ S. G. Chinese ）
Abstract this text has analysis the open question of the subject area and to raise some Improvement
Key word quark
It is publicity now, “the quark is the basic (elementary) particle”, more over it has 6 kinds, together with them to do the basic particle least 6 kinds. The present theory still to consider, the 12 kinds basic particles divide to 3 group, each go out 1 to make up neutron、proton。There is a problem of this theory clearly：from each group each to choose one, how can prove the quality of every neutron、proton get very identical? At least, first should use the mathematic equation or computer to show this probable. If the major link does not sturdy, how dare to believe this theory?
At least, if a particle is a truly basic particle, it should be to agree with following condition：
（1）Just one, may not to dividing or changing, can not to become fragment
(2) The quality is least but should be have
(3) Can be polymerized to whole other “particle” with clear mechanism
(4) Its activity is to be in line with basic physical discipline
Although the quark has been become famous, but it can not whole agree with above condition, even can not whole agree with in one condition. If find some kind of particle may be divide, it would to analyze naturally：“what is the physical mechanism and the practical situation of the dividing”? Here has two kind of estimate.
The first is, the particle is one divides into two or more, how about the result of the dividing? Is it become some less then former or but some splinter? If to say divide to some “little particle”, this mean the particle be able to be out of shape, nature of cause be unable to this magic, because it have not the mechanism of this changing；if the result of dividing is “splinter”, like that, particle、proton、neutron、atom are all face the mixing of “splinter” and particle, the colliding is continues happen in the cosmos, the “splinter” would more and more, today, it is to be apart to the fore for unlimited time, have the complete particle else? The second is, the particle of dividable is not true “one particle” but a “plural particle”.They “pasted” in by large gravitation, the collision cause them disband or partly disband.
If the rear is the true of the “particle fission”, thus the “splinter” would not the problem.
In those years, at same time there are tow men to raise the basic particle which less then proton and neutron, separately called “quark” and “as”, they are all not give specific physical appearance, if the quark is true basic particle, it does not exist this problem. From beginning , the idea of quark only obscurity, now it has added with indigestion：it been developed into six kind of changeable group. Modern times the particle theory has raising, the proton、neutron are three in one polymerized by one kind of quark one kind of neutrino and one kind of meson, so let quark become a group of three. From now on, if according to the same thought, the ranks of basic particle may be still to “expand”, at that time, the quark will more above one’s head.
It can see, “particle variable” is un-practical, The “second” is credibility relatively. Basis on above deciding (1), “the six kind of particle” are all not basic particle but the “plural particle”. Here so long as to prove the criterion of the basic particle cannot be change. The problem is touch upon if the mass can or cannot changeable after all? The two summaries of classics physics are law of conservation of matter and law of conservation of energy, it dose continue to use for some century. A hundred years ago, after the relativity raise “mass variable”, because of it has answer some difficult problems, especially the equation E=mc2 seems had replied the source of nuclear energy and cause someone to admire. This not only let the laws of “two conservation” turn to shelve, but also let people had loss preciseness, neglect of any physic changing should be exists mechanism and not to ask the mechanism of the mass changing.
Wherein the reason of the accelerator cannot accelerate the particle to light velocity? To analyze accelerating principle may know, the relation between accelerating electric current and accelerated electrons is like the wind and the sail, the sail speed always rather be lower then the wind speed, therefore, just the “wind-sail effect” was the action and not the mass of accelerated particles got change to large, if to say “mass change to large”, what is the method of large? Among volume 、density and quantity, which item able to change? What is the mechanism of this changing?
When to appear the trace-line break off from fog room or the photographic film, if to explain there is to happen the “mass annihilate”? no, because of only the few particle can to show the trace, “showing” should with fixed factor clearly, “showing” also would be loss the energy of particle, this may be let respective particle. It can dose to reach appearing factor when it begin to enter experiment region, after been away some distance was drop to threshold so change into disappear, thus the trace line get break off. If to say it is “mass annihilation”, it need to find the mechanism of annihilation, if not, it only trace-annihilation and not mass annihilation.
If the above energy equation can be prove the mass is variable? Due to it does cannot be aware of the proton、neutron is the “micro vortex galaxy ” of polymerization of numerous basic particles
(see《L04 Development of matter》)，the velocity of vortex is top high, its kinetic energy just the nuclear energy, if proton、neutron get disassemble, the basic particles fly put then to show and to get nuclear energy (mc2), this just the physical back ground of usage of energy equation. The energy equation may be use to describe the proton、neutron are contain huge energy, but cannot instead of mechanism.
It is visible, it does not firm of those examples of to support mass variable, now the “mass variable” cannot be find the supporting of reliable example or mechanism.
The basic particle may not be changing is reasonable and natural extending of “mass conservation” of classic physics, is the basic of macroscopic mass-conservation. A century ago, for reply to the difficult problem, had to offend the principle miss unconsciously, under shortage mechanism circumstances, to accept and believe the point of “mass variable”, even wrongly consider that is natural law, China has a idiom：“in the right, can walk through the all land”, if the theory lack of mechanism it is hardly to become proper theory.
It is worth use as a source of reference of preciseness of mathematic circles, before practical inspecting and verifying, any theory be the “suspect” only, should not be use as theory。The ”Goldbach conjecture” although has been prove arrived fairly level, but still treat as “conjecture”.
Since the quake is variable, it may be sure they are not the basic particle, actually who is the basic particle? How many kind of basic particle? it need begin from the analysis of the angle of force line and the acting force. The magnitude of the force was decide to the quantity of acting force line, it has not relation to the nature of force；the “leading、reproving” is belong to the difference of nature.
Upon that, the force of nature may divide into two kind of gravitation and repulsion force. The logical surmise is, the basic particle also have two kinds only：graviton and repudiatron. They separately to issue the attractive-line and the repulsion force-line, the repulsion force-line act with the repulsion force-line to cause repulsion force, to mark it with F2, the force between the repudiatron is the repulsion force certainly, may be to analyzed, the repudiatron. Is even the electron, just because of F2, the electron would repel each other, therefore they disseminate into space, to form the space electric-field, but, the quality of the electron was far less than modern maintained 9.1*10-28gram, this is the total outer mass of electron of hydrogen atom, (2009.4.29)
It is lacking on the logic if to conjecture only one electron lay on the outer of hydrogen atom, if one only, how could the hydrogen atom get well honeybee sealing of its outer space and possess neutral of electromagnetic?
The gravitation is formed between gravitons, mark it use F1, this force cause proton、neutron
become the “micro vortex galaxy” and hardly to scatter, even if bear the attack of utmost velocity, nor could complete scatter, but to form some different “group”, these “group” be deemed to the different “particle”, upon that, it have named many different “particle”, to differentiate they with “electron volt” namely kinetic energy, but forget if they are truly “one”, this is the reason of “it has six kinds of quarks”. According to (2), also may be decided the quark does not the basic particle. Under the knowing of passing method, still may be “find” “new quark” and “new basic particle”.
It is clear, the reason of difficult understanding of the quark was the lacking of recognizing and understanding, it has not one kind of quark from six kinds of quarks is the true “one”, therefore, they are all not the basic particle, as to the “changeable”, even more to make clear they are not the basic particle. To have these problems, the quark and relative theory would hard to got understand.
Quark is the major “member” of the basic theory of modern physics, if it does firm would have great influence to the basic theory, not a few of problems to place in front of the theory of quark, it need to clear, finally they is or isn’t “single”, need to reply why could get high unanimous of mass of proton and neutron , after all where come from the nuclear energy? What is the physical true for the changing of quark’s “variable” and “dividable” etc.
Since the six kind of quark are all not the basic particle, how to make the proton and neutron?
What is the relation of quark and proton? Above mentioned the reply of 《L04 Development of matter》is, the proton is from the “micro double star” of gravitons with light velocity they attract each other and to do whirl and then gradually to develop to the “micro vortex galaxy ” of about 1012 polymerized gravitons, to bear the condition of polymerization effect, the polymerization can arrive proton scale only, there fore, six kind of quark, three kind of neutrino, meson, more then 200 kind of baryon etc. are all the “micro vortex galaxy ” of not arrive proton scale yet or the proton was bear attack so “break up” to form the “particle”, the pivotal problem is, until now it not discover those great variety and diversity of “particle” really does not “one” but “micro vortex stars”, this lacking on the recognizing let particle theory great lapse, to error consider the basic particle “variable” and “dividable”, the “changing” be least of mechanism, down to “what is mass” become the fist difficult problem of modern physics.
Through the been knowing “electric volt”, and to consider the odd number or plural number of particle, may make with the reckon as following：
The six kind of quark are all the “micro vortex galaxy ” of graviton, the six kind of “up、down、charm、strange、top、bottom” quarks separately contain members about ：3×106、4×109、1.×109、100×109、200×10、、50×109。
From this meaning to say, besides above mentioned “particle”, from now on also may be find a lot of “new particle”, they are all not truly “one” but the “plural particle”, it doesn’t from true angle to understand the meaning of matter, some of them in all probability be named“newquarks”.
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